- Ph.D., Bryn Mawr College Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research, Bryn Mawr, PA. 1991. Dissertation: Maternal and Infant Health: Painful Policy Choices in Congress 1935-1987.
- M.S.W., Catholic University, Washington, D.C., 1977. Concentration in Casework.
- B.A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. 1973. Majors in Psychology and Sociology.